The bill would require businesses with more than five employees to verify the immigration status of those workers.
It also allows law enforcement officers to check the immigration status of criminal suspects.
The bill was sponsored by state Sen. Jack Murphy, R-Cumming.
"I'm pleased with the vote," Murphy told Channel 2's Richard Elliot. "There were some people that had some problems with the bill. I understand that, but I'm glad that it passed the way it did.
"Critics say the bill would place an unfair burden on businesses, particularly smaller ones.
Opponents argued it would not only hurt the agriculture business, but could also affect tourism and the decision of some businesses to locate in Georgia.
"We are moving in a direction that I think is not going to be good for Georgia," said state Sen. Robert Brown, D-Macon. "It is not going to be good for the long-term self-interest of Georgia and that's very unfortunate.
"The House is considering a similar bill, but that one remains in committee.